This is a composite image of the inner solar system showing the effect of an extreme solar event.
In the first panel, the light and electrons from solar activity reach Earth. Fast electrons and the slower ions follow magnetic lines of force.
A newly discovered method now allows explorers to use the electron ‘signal’ for their safety. In this situation, the arrival of hazardous radiation is imminent.
As the hazardous ions arrive, typically tens of minutes later, human explorers on the moon or on the way to Mars would have sought their own protection. Equipped with a warning system, this method can, in extreme cases, prevent a mission-threatening health condition: Acute Radiation Syndrome.
The individual images of the composite are available below: