Space serving European citizens
ESA Info 10-2001. On 14 and 15 November, the ministers responsible for space activities in the fifteen ESA member states and Canada gather in Edinburgh to set the course for Europe's space programmes over the period ahead. They will be invited to endorse the next stages of a series of ongoing programmes and to commit to the start of new programmes that will keep Europe at the forefront of space activities.
With Europe's evolving geopolitical role and the increasing recognition of space as a strategic instrument for carrying out its policies and improving the overall quality of life for European citizens, ESA is seeking to pursue its goals in closer cooperation with the European Union.
This ESA Council meeting at ministerial level will be instrumental in implementing policies that will lend direction to and consolidate the evolution of the public space sector and in confirming the mandate given to ESA to develop further towards becoming the space agency for the European Union. The meeting will also be taking decisions on specific activities that will create knowledge, provide services for the benefit of the people, and secure Europe's position in space so that it can make the fullest possible use of its potential over the long term.
Political objectives and plans for the future of the European space sector will be set out in a resolution entitled "Space serving European citizens".
The programmes tabled for decisions at the meeting cover the following areas:
- Earth Observation Envelope Programme, phase 2
- Earth Watch, slice 1
- ARTES 1, preliminary studies and investigations
- ARTES 3, Satellite Multimedia
- ARTES 4, ESA/Industry Telecommunications Partnership
- ARTES 5, Advance Systems and Telecommunications Equipment
- ARTES 8, Large Platform Mission
Galileo Satellite Navigation System, development and validation phase
International Space Station
- ISS Exploitation Programme Continuation
- ISS additional flight opportunities
- ISS Commercial Utilisation Preparation Programme
- ISS Studies, Technology and Evolution Preparation Programme (STEP)
- European programme for Life and Physical Sciences and Applications using the ISS (ELIPS)
- Ariane 5 Research and Technology Accompaniment (ARTA) Programme (2003-2006)
- Ariane 5 Infrastructure (2002-2006)
- Ariane 5 Plus, step 3
Aurora Exploration Programme: European long-term plan for the robotic and human exploration of the Solar System
In addition, the Level of Resources and continuation of the CSG (Centre Spatial Guyanais/Guiana Space Centre) programme have to be decided for the period 2002-2006.
1. THE 2002-2006 LEVEL OF RESOURCES
The Level of Resources determines, usually for a five-year period, the funding available for the basic activities of the General Budget and for the Science Programme. Towards the end of the third year of each such period, the ESA Council determines, by a unanimous decision, the Level of Resources to be made available to the Agency for the next five-year period.
In May 1999 a Level of Resources for 1999-2003 was submitted to Council at ministerial level, which decided to limit it to the period 1999-2002, asking the ESA executive to prepare a new LOR for approval before the end of 2001. The November Council at ministerial level is therefore an appropriate moment to agree on the 2002-2006 LOR.
During the 1990s considerable emphasis was placed on increasing the efficiency of management at the Agency. A consequence of this has been a reduction in the Level of Resources amounting to around 14% over the ten-year period, whilst there has been little loss of capabilities and even increases in activities in several areas. Now it is felt that to ensure an appropriate balance between Basic Activities and Optional Programmes within the overall European Space Strategy, a modest increase (of around 4 % over 5 years) is needed, giving priority to the Science Programme and Technology.
The General Budget:
The General Budget covers corporate and administrative costs, technical activities such as the basic General Studies and Technological Research Programmes, plus Earthnet and Education (funding of fellowships, etc.).
The General Studies Programme prepares new science missions for possible selection, prepares the case for approval and funding of new optional projects/programmes and supports the evolution of ESA by analysing and testing new work methodologies. Other subjects covered within General Studies include Space Weather applications, Near Earth Objects hazard prevention, the Grid (the future development of the World Wide Web) and advanced networking, and a number of very advanced technological assessments.
The Technological Research Programme (TRP) enables future space missions by assessing the potential of prospective technologies, demonstrates technological feasibility of future ESA missions and harmonises future developments with national agencies. The Technology Transfer Programme (TTP) promotes and disseminates developed space technologies throughout the European community, with the aims of adapting them as necessary and integrating them into the market economy.
Activities concerned with space debris will also be covered within the General Budget.
The total General Budget requested for the period 2002-2006 amounts to EUR 919m (at 2001 economic conditions), and allows a 3% annual increase.
The Science Programme
The Science Programme is the backbone of ESA's programmes. It is a "maker of knowledge", performing an essential role in a knowledge-based society. Its very successful missions have made ESA the leader or co-leader with NASA in most areas of space science research.
Over the last ten years, ESA's Science Programme has substantially increased its output, despite declining purchasing power in the last six years, thanks to increased productivity and efficiency, achieved through access to new launchers, re-use of platforms and sub-systems, and new management practices.
An overall budget increase is needed in the coming years to ensure that Science can remain a European flag-carrier in a competitive global environment, contribute to Europe's knowledge-based society, and perform its strategic role as a source of information.
The funding proposal for the next five years covers:
- maintenance of plans for scientific missions already launched (Hubble Space Telescope, Ulysses, Cluster II, SOHO, Huygens/Cassini, XMM-Newton)
- approved scientific missions in the development phase (Integral, Rosetta, Mars Express, Smart-1, Herschel-Planck)
- new missions under study or to be chosen and initiated in this period (i.e. the Cornerstones BepiColombo, GAIA and LISA - with Smart-2, and the Solar Orbiter flexi-mission)
- new missions approved but not possible without increased funding (Eddington, a "reserve mission", and other flexi-missions).
The total expected contribution to the Science Programme for 2002-2006 amounts to EUR 1945.1m (at 2001 e.c.).
This is lower than had been hoped, however, and will probably preclude the proposed Mars Express bus re-use mission (2005) and could result in delays to missions such as GAIA and Solar Orbiter. It could also prevent, in the longer term, the introduction of Eddington (2008) into the programme.
2. EARTH OBSERVATION
Earth Observation from space contributes to Earth Science as well as to operational applications such as Environmental Monitoring and Management of Natural Resources. Earth Science provides key contributions to improved understanding of the Planet Earth and its complex processes. Earth Observation application missions provide unique and cost-effective support to decision-making processes in a wide variety of areas.
The ministers will be asked for decisions on two Earth Observation programmes:
- the second period of the Earth Observation Envelope Programme (EOEP-2) covering the time frame 2003-2007
- the first slice of the Earth Watch Programme, with missions to be started between 2002 and 2006.
The decision on EOEP-2 is the follow-up to the EOEP activity approved in 1999 by the Ministerial Council, which called for a new period of EOEP to be proposed, endorsed and financed at least one year before the end of the first. EOEP-1 covered the time frame 2000-2002.
The start of an Earth Watch Programme in parallel with EOEP was endorsed by Council in 1998 and responds to a top priority for Europe, the initiative on Global Monitoring for Environment and Security, GMES, identified in the European Strategy for Space approved by the EU and ESA Ministerial Councils in November 2000.
The Earth Watch initiative will broaden the range of EO application missions developed through ESA in partnership with member states, user organisations and industry.
EOEP has enabled ESA to start a long-term commitment to Earth Science driven by European scientists, open to international cooperation and matching European ambitions and capabilities. EOEP implements Earth Explorer core and opportunity missions and also funds mission exploitation, instrument predevelopment and support for market development.
The development of such Earth Explorer missions as Cryosat, the Gravity field and steady state Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE), the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) and the initiation of full implementation of the Atmospheric Dynamics Mission (ADM-Aeolus) are major achievements of EOEP-1.
It is now essential to enter the nominal steady-state phase with a second period covering five years. The time span of five years is in line with the phasing of the Earth Watch initiative covering the same length of time.
EOEP-2 will give the Earth Science community and industry a stable outlook in which one new mission will be launched every year. It will also cover preparation of Earth Watch missions, including the initial stages of missions with Eumetsat.
The financial commitments expected from member states for EOEP-2 amount to EUR 1699m for the period 2003 -2007
The Earth Watch programme will include a number of Earth Observation application missions and will be managed as an optional programme, implemented in partnership with user organisations, the private sector or both.
Among the initial Earth Watch elements, priority application themes include:
- operational meteorology in partnership with Eumetsat
- the requirements of the GMES initiative, currently being drawn up, addressing in particular global change, natural and man-made hazards, environmental stress and monitoring of treaty commitments
- high-resolution imaging missions (optical and radar) supporting public- and private-sector applications such as mapping, natural resource management, major risks and security, geology etc.
The Earth Watch programme is to be implemented in five-year slices. The first will cover the period 2002-2006. Elements of the first slice ready to enter the development phase include:
GMES service elements
(envisaged funding: EUR 83m)
a C-band SAR element based on the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) Radarsat proposal
(envisaged funding: EUR 100m)
a X-band SAR element based on the Italian Space Agency (ASI) COSMO proposal
(envisaged funding: EUR 75m)
the thematic L/X SAR element based on the joint proposal from the British and German space agencies (BNSC/DLR) for Infoterra/TerraSAR
(envisaged funding: EUR 30m) and
an infrared element based on the Spanish CDTI Fuegosat proposal
(envisaged funding: EUR 60m).
Some of the other elements being prepared for submission during the 2002-2006 period include:
- an optical element, possibly based on a French space agency (CNES) Pléiades proposal
- an ocean observation element, building on past ESA investments in the field
- a superspectral/hyperspectral element, currently being studied in EOEP following a number of national and industry proposals.
The financial commitments expected from member states for Earth Watch Slice 1 amount to EUR 348m for the period 2002-2006.
Seventy-five per cent of all satellites are telecommunications satellites. They are of strategic importance to Europe. Total worldwide satellite industry revenue was $27 billion in 2000 and is expected to grow to over $100bn by 2007.
The ARTES (Advanced Research in Telecommunication Systems) programme
Eight actions/projects have been identified to further increase the competitiveness of European industry in satellite telecommunications, many of which are the continuation and amplification of ongoing activities.
- Interactive Multimedia: deployment, demonstration and early operation of geostationary multimedia projects.
- User Segment: support to applications, ground network and user terminals, which are critical to the successful introduction of new services and the opening up of new markets. The participation of small and medium-size enterprises will be encouraged.
- Mobility: developing technologies for and promoting early deployment of the next generation of mobile services. Both mobile satellite systems and digital audio radio services will be considered.
- Preparatory Activities Programme and Standardisation: to analyse the evolution and competitiveness of the space and terrestrial telecommunications markets and support evaluation of new system architectures.
- Technology: to enable industry and operators to continuously evaluate and develop new technologies for enhancing overall performance of next-generation satellite systems.
- Large Platform Mission: development of a large European platform, with a mass greater than 7000 kg and capable of providing power levels in excess of 20 kW. This mission will unite European industrial prime contractors and suppliers around the common objective of meeting the needs of telecom operators in 2006 and beyond.
- In-Orbit Demonstration Platforms: flight qualification of new payload and platform components to reduce the risks of development programmes and accelerate commercial adoption.
- Inter-Satellite Link Demonstrations: these technologies provide the opportunity to increase the capabilities of next-generation satellite networks. The value of such links will be demonstrated in orbit.
With the exception of the Large Platform development activity, which will become a new ARTES element (ARTES 8), all the actions/projects above will be integrated into the existing ARTES programme.
ARTES 1:Preliminary Studies and Investigations
Contribution requested for the period 2002-2006:
ARTES 3:Satellite Multimedia (will also cover mobility and inter-satellite links)
Contribution requested for the period 2002-2006:
ARTES 4: ESA/Industry Telecommunications Partnership (will deal with part of technology and user segment activities)
Contribution requested for the period 2002-2006:
ARTES 5: Advanced Systems and Telecommunications Equipment (consists of technology, user segment and in-orbit demonstration)
Contribution requested for the period 2002-2006:
ARTES 8: Large Platform programme
Contribution requested for the period 2002-2006:
Note: The ARTES programme currently consists of 5 elements (1-5). ARTES 2 (On-board processing) is now completed.
The Galileo Programme
Galileo is a joint initiative of the European Commission and ESA. It is intended to deploy a full constellation of navigation satellites by the end of 2008. The programme was initiated in the autumn of 1999 and, once operational, will give Europe sovereignty in safety-critical applications and telematic infrastructure with superior technical and operational capabilities compared with the American GPS and the Russian Glonass systems.
Galileo involves the following programme phases:
end 1999 - end 2000: Galileo Definition Phase
This phase, devoted to the overall system design, is now completed. The Galileo Definition Phase was made up of two sets of activities, namely:
- GalileoSat activities (space segment and related ground facilities) under ESA responsibility
Galileo activities (mission, architecture, frequency etc.) under EC responsibility.
(EUR 80m, equally shared between the European Commission and ESA, was allocated for this phase).
2001-2005: Design, Development and Validation Phase
The final objective of this phase is to perform in-orbit validation of the system, based on the deployment of a limited constellation (3 to 5 satellites) and a representative ground control segment and test receivers.
ESA's contribution to the Design, Development and Validation Phase is EUR 550m. As EUR 53m has already been subscribed, the ministers will be requested to commit EUR 497m. 2006-2008: Deployment and Start of Operational Phase
The full Galileo system will consist of 30 satellites (in medium Earth orbit at 24 000 km, possibly complemented by 3 geostationary satellites at 36 000 km) and the associated ground infrastructure. It will be compatible and interoperable with the planned second-generation global positioning systems.
The cost of the overall Galileo project is estimated at some EUR 2.7bn. Financial schemes for the deployment and operational phase are being worked on currently.
4. HUMAN SPACEFLIGHT AND MICROGRAVITY PROGRAMME
With the development of the European contributions to the International Space Station approaching completion and following the start of the ISS Exploitation Programme in 2000, the European effort over the next five years (2002-2006) will concentrate on continuity of preparations for exploitation and utilisation of the European elements for fundamental and applied research and commercial applications. The maintenance of Europe's human spaceflight capability is also an important strategic aspect of ISS utilisation and future human space exploration.
ISS Exploitation Programme Continuation
The objectives of the programme are to develop European operational capabilities in key areas required for long-term human space exploration, build up the know-how necessary to master the operations of a complex human outpost in space, and support ISS use by the European user community.
Exploitation Period 1 (2002-2006) covers activities such as partial funding of the first Ariane 5 and full procurement of the third Ariane 5 for the ATV, plus ATV procurement activities, including the first ATV production unit. The programme will include sustaining engineering for flight and ground elements (including space procurement); ISS Operations Preparation and Initial Operations; preparation and execution of the first ATV mission under the exploitation programme; astronaut activities; utilisation coordination and support; NASA reimbursable services (data communications and download logistics) and programme integration.
Period 1 of ISS exploitation is composed of fixed and variable cost activities to be undertaken in the period 2002-2006. The Period 1 financial envelope amounts to EUR 965.9m at 2001 e.c. and is divided into a firm sub-envelope of EUR 579.4m for 2002-2004 and a provisional sub-envelope of EUR 386.5m for 2005-2006.
Additional ISS Flight Opportunities Programme
The objectives of this programme are those of maintaining and developing an active and experienced European Astronaut Corps, offering further opportunities to the European user community for ISS utilisation, enhancing promotion of European manned spaceflight and space-based research and providing a European pathway for ISS commercial development.
The programme, proposed as an additional slice of the ISS exploitation programme, envisages the procurement from Russia of 4 Soyuz flights to and from the ISS and covers crew training associated with the mission plus management and mission support.
The proposed decision covers these 4 additional ISS flights for European astronauts during the period 2003-2006. The financial envelope amounts to EUR 60m at 2001 e.c.
ISS Commercial Utilisation Preparation Programme
The objectives are to lay the foundations for commercial utilisation of the ISS, stimulate commercial utilisation to generate revenues and thus reduce contributions payable by participants in the ISS exploitation programme, and promote the image of the ISS to attract a larger community of users.
The programme, proposed as an additional slice of the ISS exploitation programme, covers the development of policy and a legal framework, implementation of pathfinder projects and ISS promotion activities.
The proposed decision covers commercial utilisation preparation activities during the period 2002-2006. The financial envelope, to be covered by participating States' contributions, amounts to EUR 35m at 2001 e.c. This envelope will be complemented by contributions from industrial parties, estimated at EUR 35m at 2001 e.c.
Manned Spaceflight Studies, Technology and Evolution Preparation (STEP)
The objectives are the improvement of existing ISS services, reduction of ISS operational costs and the preparation of future infrastructure capabilities.
The programme, proposed as an additional slice of the ISS exploitation programme, covers studies, definition activities and pre-development of selected items.
It is conceived as a framework programme structured in periods of three years for which a work-plan is elaborated and allows member states to undertake activities of interest to them on a "pay as you go" basis.
The proposed decision covers the first three-year period of activities (2002-2005). The programme envelope will depend on financial subscriptions established at the meeting.
The objectives are to maximise the benefits to society of ISS utilisation, promote European competence and competitiveness in life and physical sciences, purse basic scientific research in life and physical sciences and also industrial and commercial applications in space, and setting up a coherent framework for European activity in this area.
The European programme for Life and Physical Sciences and Applications utilising the International Space Station (ELIPS) is proposed as an envelope programme. It is composed of rolling 5-year periods as in the ISS exploitation programme. Each period is divided into a firm period of 3 years and a provisional period of 2 years. The ELIPS programme is the successor to the EMIR-2 extension, itself a continuation of the microgravity programme started by the Agency in 1993 with EMIR-1.
The proposed decision covers Period 1 of the programme (2002-2006) and comprises activities with the technical content outlined above. The financial envelope for this period amounts to EUR 320m at 2001 e.c. It is divided into a firm sub-envelope of EUR 162m for 2002-2004 and a provisional sub-envelope of EUR158m for 2005-2006.
5. LAUNCHER PROGRAMMES
The European Space Strategy, jointly endorsed by the ESA and EU Councils on 16 November 2000, reaffirms independent access to space as being the foundation of space applications and related services. It stresses that the competitiveness of Ariane on the world market is the key to making that independent access affordable to governments.
Programmes related to the exploitation of Ariane
Independent and competitive access to space can only be guaranteed if an operationally available launcher is and remains reliable and has an operational, available and competitive launch base from which to operate.
The purpose of the ARTA 5 programme is to help to ensure that the first of these conditions is met, and it is proposed to extend this programme for the 4-year period from 2003 to 2006.
The availability of the launch base will be ensured by continuing the CSG programme under which the member states meet the fixed costs of the CSG facilities and the Infrastructure programme under which they meet the fixed costs of the launch pads.
The objectives of the ARTA 5 programme are to maintain the reliability and level of qualification of the Ariane 5 launcher throughout its operational life, to eliminate design flaws and weaknesses appearing during operational use, and to improve knowledge about the functional behaviour of the launcher in flight.
The programme is currently funded until the end of 2002 and will need to be extended to cover the operational life of Ariane 5. The present proposal is for a 4-year extension over the period 2003-2006.
The programme includes work such as sampling and testing of sensitive elements of the launcher; recovery and inspection of solid propellant boosters; treatment of design-related anomalies and obsolescence, detailed evaluation of flight data and refinement of mathematical models of the launcher.
The 4-year extension of the ARTA 5 programme proposed at the meeting at involves a budget requirement of EUR 340m (2001 e.c).
Ariane 5 Infrastructure
The proposed programme, meeting the fixed costs of the ELA2 (Ensemble de lancement N° 2) and ELA3 launch complex facilities, covers the period 2002-2004.
This 3-year extension of the Ariane 5 Infrastructure programme proposed at the meeting involves a budget requirement of EUR 234m (2001 e.c.).
CSG (Centre Spatial Guyanais/Guiana Space Centre)
The agreement on CSG management and funding has until now covered the upkeep and operating costs of the CSG range facilities to ensure long-term stability of strategic investment in Europe's assured access to space. The present agreement ends in 2001. A new proposal covering the fixed costs of the CSG for the period 2002-2006 is being presented to the ministers for approval.
The 5-year extension of CSG funding proposed at the meeting for the period 2002-2006 involves a budget requirement of EUR 433.1m (2001 e.c.).
Programme related to the evolution of Ariane
Ariane 5 Plus
The objective of this programme is to keep Ariane 5 competitive on the world market by increasing its performance and versatility and bringing the launch price down. The Ariane 5 Plus programme was broken down into three steps, each subject to a separate decisions and each incorporating the previous one:
The first step, decided at the Council meeting in June 1998, covered the first year of activities. The second was decided at the Council meeting at Ministerial level in 1999 and covered the following:
- initial development of the Vinci engine
- initial ground segment upgrade
- full development of the versatile version of the existing upper stage
- completion of the Ariane 5 EC-A version and its first launch, bringing the GTO lift capacity to 9 tonnes; this launch is planned for June 2002.
The third step will complete the programme, its content being as follows:
- completion of Vinci engine development
- completion of the ground segment upgrade
- completion of the Ariane 5 EC-B version and first launch of this version bringing the GTO lift capacity to 12 tonnes; this launch is planned for 2006.
In order to complete the Ariane 5 Plus programme the budget proposed at the meeting is EUR 671.2m (2001 e.c.).
6. THE AURORA PROGRAMME
The Aurora Programme is aimed at developing a European long-term plan for the robotic and human exploration of bodies in the Solar System, in particular those holding promise for traces of life.
The activities will be pursued in coordination with European and international partners, so as to ensure programmatic, scientific and technological coherence. The programme is envisaged as an envelope programme with consecutive five-year periods, following a three-year preparatory period during which Aurora will develop relevant technologies and mission scenarios.
The fully developed programme will include major missions (Flagships) driving to soft landing or sample return from planetary bodies and eventually a human mission and cost-capped, short development time missions (Arrows) to demonstrate new technologies or mission approaches, or to exploit opportunities for payloads on European or international missions.
The overall financial commitment expected for the first three-year period is EUR 40m (2001 e.c.)
7. SPACE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAMMES
A strong technology base is the foundation for European sovereignty in space and for the development of innovative and competitive applications and services for the benefit of European citizens.
The top-level objectives for ESA's Technology R&D (TRD) programmes are:
- to strengthen and broaden the technology base to reinforce Europe's independent capabilities in space
- to foster space technology innovation, addressing long-term technologies which would lay the foundations of as yet unforeseen applications and offer promise for new services and initiatives
- to carry out Technology R & D best able to reduce costs, enhance competitiveness, growth and employment, with defined roles for prime contractors, equipment suppliers and SMEs
- to maintain competencies and to contribute towards the establishment of a European research area for space.
ESA will open a continuous dialogue between technology providers and users, and relevant third parties (e.g. operators). Harmonisation and coordination of technology programmes in Europe will be pushed further and the impact of ESA's Research and Technology Programmes on industry's structure and competitiveness will be strengthened.
In the light of needs and expectations, it is proposed to increase ESA's dedication to technology from 8% today to at least 10% of its total budget by 2005, including the technology content of all ESA programmes.
Note to Editors:
The 8th ESA Council meeting at ministerial level will take place on 14 and 15 November 2001 at the Edinburgh International Conference Centre (EICC), The Exchange, Morrison Street, Edinburgh EH3 8EE (Scotland)
For accreditation and programme, please refer to ESA Press release N° 55-2001 of 16 October.
Note : Accreditation will start at 08h00. Delegations arrival at 08h30, the meeting will open at 09h00 (and not at 10h00 as previously indicated).
Summary of optional programmes
|EARTH OBSERVATION||EURm (2001 e.c.)|
|EOPP, phase 2 (2003-2007)||1699|
|Earth Watch, slice 1 (2002-2006)||348|
|- GMES service elements||83|
|- C-band SAR Radarsat (CSA)||100|
|- X-band SAR COSMO (ASI)||75|
|- L/X SAR Infoterra/Terrasar (BNSC/DLR)||30|
|- IR element Fuegosat (CDTI)||60|
|TELECOMMUNICATIONS||EURm (2001 e.c.)|
|- ARTES 1, preliminary studies and investigations (2002-2006)||50|
|- ARTES 3, satellite multimedia (2002-2006)||465|
|- ARTES 4, ESA/industry telecommunications partnerships 2002-2006)||115|
|- ARTES 5, Advanced systems and telecommunications equipment (2002-2006)||370|
|- ARTES 8, Large Platform mission (2002-2006)||500|
|-Design Development and Validation phase (2001-2005)||497|
|HUMAN SPACEFLIGHT AND MICOGRAVITY||EURm (2001 e.c.)|
|ISS exploitation Programme continuation (2002-2006)||965.9|
|ISS additional flight opportunities (2003-2006)||60|
|ISS Commercial Utilisation|
|Preparation Programme (2002-2006)||35|
|ISS Studies Technology and Evolution|
|Preparatory Programme (STEP) (2002-2005)||(t.b.d.)|
|European Programme for Life and Physical Sciences (ELIPS)(2002-2006)||320|
|Ariane 5 Research and Technology Accompaniment programme (ARTA) (2003-2006)||340|
|Ariane 5 infrastructure (2002-2004)||234|
|CSG funding (2002-2006)||433.1|
|Ariane 5 Plus (third step)||671.2|
|AURORA exploration programme||EURm (2001 e.c.)|
Summary of mandatory programmes
|Level of Resources (2002-2006)||EURm (2001 e.c.)|