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Protection of the Space Environmentprinter friendly page
Protection of the Space Environment
 
Documents
U.S. documents on Planetary Protection
Workshops and conferences
Books
Articles
Other useful readings
Useful links
 

 
Documents

COSPAR Planetary Protection Policy 2002 (as amended)

General Assembly Resolution that recommends that more attention be paid to all matters relating to the protection and the preservation of the outer space environment (see point 34) (2001)
UN A/RES/55/122

Moon Treaty (1979, entered into force in 1984)
UN A/RES/34/68

Environmental Effects of Space Activities
UN A/AC. 105/358

Outer Space Treaty (1967)
UNGA RES 2222 (XXI)  
 

 
U.S. documents on Planetary Protection

Draft Test Protocol for Detecting Possible Biohazards in Martian
Sample Returned to Earth (2002)
NASA/CP--2002-211842

NASA Manned Spacecraft Center Comprehensive Biological Protocol for the Lunar Sample Receiving Laboratory (1967)

List of NASA and U.S. National Research Council documents related to Planetary Protection
 
 

 
Workshops and conferences

5th Eilene M. Galloway Symposium on Critical Issues in Space Law: “Art. IX of the Outer Space Treaty and Peaceful Purposes: Issues and Implementations”
Washington D.C., U.S., 2 December 2010
 
 

 
K.-H. BÖCKSTIEGEL
“Environment Aspects of Space Activities”
Carl Heymanus and Verlag, Cologne, 1989.

V. S. MANI, S. BHATT, V. BALKISTA REDDY
“Recent Trends in International Space Law and Policy”
Lancers Books, New Delhi, 1997.

G. C. M. REIJNEN, W. de GRAAFF
“The Pollution of Outer Space, in Particular of the Geostationary Orbit: Scientific, Policy, and Legal Aspects”
Nijhoff, 1989.

L. VIIKARI
“The Environmental Element in Space Law: Assessing the Present and Charting the Future”
Martinus Nijhoff, 2008
 
 

 
Articles

R. I. R. ABEYRATNE
“The Use of Nuclear Power Sources in Outer Space and Its Effect on Environmental Protection”
Journal of Space Law, Vol. 25, Issue 1, 1997, P. 17.

AHUJA
“Space activities and Environmental Pollution”
In V. S. MANI, S. BHATT, V. BALKISTA REDDY, “Recent Trends in International Space Law and Policy”, Lancers Books, New Delhi, 1997, pp. 461-471.

H. A. BAKER
“Protection of the Outer Space Environment: History and Analysis of Article IX of the Outer Space Treaty”
Annals of Air and Space Law, Vol. XII, 1987, p. 143.

A. BIANCHI
“Environmental Harm Resulting from the Use of Nuclear Power Sources in Outer Space: Some Remarks on State Responsibility and Liability”
In F. FRANCIONI, T. SCOVAZZI (eds.), “International Responsibility for Environmental Harm”, 1991.

M. BOURÉLY
“La protection de l’environnement dans l’espace extra atmosphérique”
Annals of Air and Space Law, Vol. X, 1985, p. 277.

W. R. BHUTIA
“Protection of the Outer Space Environment”
JurisOnline.in, 17 March 2010

C. Q. CHRISTOL
“Protection of Space from Environmental Harms”
Annals of Air and Space Law, Vol. IV, 1979, p. 433.

C. Q. CHRISTOL
“Stratospheric Ozone, Space Object and International Environment Law”
Journal of Space Law, Vol. 4, 1976, p. 23.

F. von der DUNK
“Space for Celestial Symphonies? Towards the Establishment of International Radio Quiet Zones”
Space Policy, Vol. 17, 2001, pp. 265-74.

E. FASAN
“Planetary Protection: Some Legal Questions”
Advances in Space Research, Vol. 34, Issue 11, 2004, pp. 2344-2353.

S. GOROVE
“Pollution and Outer Space: A Legal Analysis and Appraisal”
New York University Journal of International Law and Politics, Vol. 5, 1972, p. 53.

J. H. HUEBERT, W. BLOCK
“Space Environmentalism, Property Rights and the Law”
University of Memphis Law Review, Vol. 37, 2007, pp. 281-309.

S. MARCHISIO
“Protecting the Space Environment”
In “Proceedings of the Forty-Sixth Colloquium on the Law of Outer Space, 2003”.

B. L. MCDERMOTT
“Outer Space: The Latest Polluted Frontier”
Air Force Law Review, Vol. 36, 1992, p. 143.

M. MENTER
“Environmental Implications and Responsibility in the Use of Outer Space”
Journal of Space Law, Vol. 17, N. 1, 1989.

G. MEISHAN GHO, B. KAZEMINEJAD
“Mars through the Looking Glass: An Interdisciplinary Analysis of Forward and Backward Contamination”
Space Policy, Vol. 20, Issue 3, 2004, pp. 217-225.

S.M. RACE
“Planetary Protection, Legal Ambiguity and the Decision Making Process for Mars Sample Return.”
Advances in Space Research, Vol. 18, Issues 1-2, 1996, pp. 345-350.

V. N. RAO
“Protection of Outer Space Environment: The Need for International Legal Regime”
In V. S. MANI, S. BHATT, V. BALKISTA REDDY, “Recent Trends in International Space Law and Policy”, Lancers Books, New Delhi, 1997, pp. 477, 491.

D. E. REIBEL
“Environmental Regulation of Space Activity”
Stanford Environmental Law Journal, Vol. 10, 1991, p. 97.

G. ROBINSON
“Forward Contamination of Interstitial Space and Celestial Bodies: Risk Reduction, Cultural Objectives, and the Law”
ZLW, Year 2006, Issue 3.

J.D. RUMMEL, L. BILLINGS
“Issues in Planetary Protection: Policy, Protocol and Implementation”
Space Policy, Vol. 20, 2004, pp. 49-54.

P.M. STEARNS, L.I. TENNEN
“Space and the Environment: Public Perceptions and Policy Considerations”
In “Proceedings of the Thirty-Seventh Colloquium on the Law of Outer Space, 1994” (IISL-94-IISL.4.844).

D. TAN
“Towards a New Regime for the Protection of Outer Space as a Province of All Mankind”
In C. KU, P. F. DIEHL (eds.), “International Law: Classic and Contemporary Readings”, Lynne Rienner, 2009.

L. VIIKARI
“Environmental Impact Assessment in the Space Sector”
In K. BASTMEIJER, T. KOIVUROVA (eds.), “Theory and Practice of Transboundary Environmental Impact Assessment”, Nijhoff, 2008.
 
 

 
Other useful readings

C. A. CONLEY, J. D. RUMMEL
“Planetary Protection for Humans in Space: Mars and the Moon”
Acta Astronautica, Vol. 63, Issues 7-10, 2008, pp. 1025-1030.

A. DEBUS, J. ARNOULD
“Planetary Protection Issues Related to Human Missions to Mars”
Advances in Space Research, Vol. 42, Issue 6, 2008, pp.1120-1127.

D.L. DEVINCENZI, P. STABEKIS, J. BARENGOLTZ
“Refinement of Planetary Protection Policy for Mars Missions” (revision to)
Advanced Space Research, Vol. 18, Issues 1-2, 1996, pp. 311-316.

HOFMANN, RETTBERG, WILLIAMSON
“Protecting the Environment of Celestial Bodies”
International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) Cosmic Study, 2010

F.-B. HSIAO
“Microsatellites as Research Tools: Proceedings of the COSPAR Colloquium on Microsatellites as Research Tools, Tainan, Taiwan, 14-17 December 1997”
Elsevier Science, 1999.

S. M. RACE
“Responsible Exploration: Protecting Earth and the Worlds We Explore from Cross Contamination”
Universe in the Classroom, Astronomical Society of the Pacific online newsletter, N. 58, 2002.

W. RATHGEBER, K.-U. SCHROGL, R. A. WILLIAMSON (ed.)
“The Fair and Responsible Use of Space: An International Perspective”
Studies in Space Policy , Vol.4, Springer Wien-NewYork, 2010.

G. ROGOVSKY, V. BOGOMOLOV, M. IVANOV, J. RUNAVOT, A. DEBUS, A. VICTOROV, J. C. DARBORD
“Planetary Protection Program for Mars 94/96 Mission”
Advances in Space Research, Vol. 18, Issues 1-2, 1996, pp. 323-332.

M. WILLIWAMSON
“Space Ethics and Protection of the Space Environment”
Space Policy, Vol. 19, 2003, pp. 47-52.

M. WILLIWAMSON
“Planetary Spacecraft Debris: The Case for Protecting the Space Environment”
Acta Astronautica, Vol. 47, Issues 2-9, pp. 719-729.
 
 

 
Useful links

Committee on Space Research (COSPAR)

COSPAR Panel on Planetary Protection (PPP)

ESA Aurora Programme

ESA Exomars website on planetary protection

NASA Planetary Protection Science Mission Directorate
 
 
Last update: 27 June 2011

 


 
 
 
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