Feature

The 1960s


1961
 
 
1960
Foundation of the International Academy of Astronautics (IAA)

Useful links

IAA website
 
1961
 
Yuri Gagarin, first man to fly into space (12 April 1961), the origins of the Apollo program and the UNGA Resolution 1721 (XVI)

Documents

White House Telegram congratulating Khrushchev on manned space flight (12 April 1961)
JFK Presidential Library and Museum.

Correspondence between President J. F. Kennedy and the Vice President L. B. Johnson on the space program (20 April 1961).

Vice President Johnson’s memorandum to the President evaluating the space program (28 April 1961)

Wernher von Braun’s letter to the Vice President (29 April 1961).

Excerpts from J. F. Kennedy “Urgent National Needs” Speech to a joint session of US Congress (25 May 1961).


Memorandum relaying the conversation between President Kennedy and Premier Khrushchev on the possibility to go to the Moon together (3 June 1961)
JFK Presidential Library and Museum

Resolution that elaborated fundamental space law principles and requested the Secretary-General to maintain a public registry of launchings.
General Assembly Resolution 1721 (XVI) of 20 December 1961

Books

C. G. BROOKS, J. M. GRIMWOOD, L. S. SWENSON Jr.
“Chariots for Apollo: A History of Manned Lunar Spacecraft”
NASA SP-4205, Washington, 1979.

B. K. BYERS
“Destination Moon: A History of the Lunar Orbiter Program”
NASA TM X-3487, Washington, DC, 1977.

W. H. LAMBRIGHT
“Powering Apollo: James E. Webb of NASA”
Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD, 1995.

A. S. LEVINE
“Managing NASA in the Apollo Era”
NASA SP-4102, Washington, DC, 1982

J. M. LOGSDON
“The Decision to Go to the Moon: Project Apollo and the National Interest”
MIT Press, Cambridge, MA,1970.

C. A. MURRAY, C. BLY COX
“Apollo, the Race to the Moon”
Simon and Schuster, New York, 1989.

M. R. SHARPE
“Yuri Gagarin: first man in space”
Strode Publishers, 1969.

Articles

J. M. LOGSDON
“An Apollo Perspective”
Astronautics & Aeronautics, December 1979, pp. 112-17.

Useful links

50th Anniversary of Yuri Gagarin Fight into Space website

BBC on this day: 12 April 1961


Russian Archives Online


 
 
1962
 
 
Creation of ELDO and ESRO and the launch of the first commercially funded satellite, Telstar I (10 July)

Documents

ELDO Convention (English/French)

ESRO Convention (English)

ESRO Convention (Français)

Books

“The History of the European Space Agency”
Proceedings of an International Symposium, London, 11-13 November 1998
ESA SP-436, 1999.

“The Story of ESRO's Sounding Rocket Programme: In celebration of the 25th anniversary of the first ESRO Sunding Rocket launch”
ESA BR-60, 1989.

R.-M. BONNET, V. MANNO
“International Cooperation in Space: The Example of the European Space Agency”
Frontiers of Space series, Harvard University Press, 1994.

J. KRIGE, A. RUSSO
“A History of the European Space Agency: 1958-1987. Volume I: The Story of ESRO and ELDO, 1958-1973”

ESA Publication Division, ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2000.

Useful links

ESA History website


 
 
1963
 
 
Valentina Tereshkova, first woman into space (16 June)and the Partial Test Ban Treaty (5 August)

Books

B. H. KEVLES
“Almost Heaven: The Story of Women in Space”
MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 2006.

M. R. SHARPE
“It is I, Sea gull: Valentina Tereshkova, first woman in space” Crowell, 1975.

Articles

J. SYKORA, I. OLCOVA, J. DVORAK, M. POLANKOVA, A. TOMECEK
“Women’s place in space exploration”
Space Policy, Volume 12, Issue 3, August 1996, pp. 161-165.

S. M. NIEBUR
“Women and mission leadership”
Space Policy, Volume 25, Issue 4, November 2009, pp. 257-263.

Useful links

BBC on this day: 16 June 1963

Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI) website

 
 
1964
 
Establishment of INTELSAT (20 August)

Documents

Agreement Relating to the International Telecommunications Satellite Organization “INTELSAT” (1971)

Books

R. R. COLINA
“The INTELSAT Definitive Arrangements: Ushering in a New Era in Satellite Telecommunications”
Monograph No.9, European Broadcasting Union, Geneva, Switzerland, 1973.

J. N. PELTON, J. ALPER (eds)
“The INTELSAT Global Satellite System”
New York, 1986.

Articles

A.C. CLARKE
“Extraterrestrial Relays”
Wireless World, Volume 51, October 1945, pp. 305 308.

Useful links

Intelsat website on INTELSAT’s history

 
 
1965
 
France becomes the third country to launch a satellite with its own launcher (26 November)

Useful links

CNES Website on the launch

 
 
1967
 
Outer Space Treaty

Documents

Outer Space Treaty

 
 
1968
 
 
The Astronauts Agreement, the launch of the first ESRO’s satellite (17 May) and the first United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (14-27 August)

Documents

Astronauts Agreement

Resolution on the conference
General Assembly Resolution 2453 (XXIII) A of 20 December 1968

 
 
1969
 
 
First men on the Moon (20 July)

Documents

President Nixon daily diary (July 1969)

National Security Study Memorandum 72 (4 September 1969)

Books

M. ACKMANN
“The Mercury 13: The Untold Story of Thirteen American Women and the Dream of Space Flight”
Random House, 2003.

Henry S.F. COOPER
“Apollo on the Moon”
Dial Press, New York, 1969.

T. FURNISS
“One Small Step"--The Apollo Missions, the Astronauts, the
Aftermath: A Twenty Year Perspective”
G.T. Foulis & Co., Somerset, England, 1989.

A. SHEPARD, D. SLAYTON
“Moonshot: The Inside Story of America's Race to the Moon”
New York: Turner Books, 1994.

Useful links

BBC on this day: 21 July 1969


The New York Times On This Day

 
 
 
Last update: 2 March 2011

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