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Commercial Space Transportationprinter friendly page
Commercial Space Transportation
 
Documents
Workshops and conferences
Books
Articles
Other useful readings

 
Documents

Commercial Crew Transportation System (CCTS) Certification Requirements for NASA Low Earth Orbit Missions (2010)
ESMD-CCTSCR-12.10, Revision-Basic

U.S. Arms Export Control Act - International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) 2010
U.S. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 22, Chapter I, Subchapter M: ITAR

U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Human Space Flight Requirements for Crew and Space Flight Participants: Final Rule (2006)

ICAO Council Working Paper: “Concept of Sub-Orbital Flights” (2005)C-WP/12436

Report of the ICAO Council Working Group on Strategic Objectives (2005) C-DEC 174/13

Vega Group Briefing Paper: “Europe and Space Tourism” (2004)

Commercial Space Launch Amendments Act of 2004 (United States) US Public Law 108–492 (US Code, Title 49, Subtitle IX, Chapter 701: Commercial Space Launch Activities)

Futron Corporation Space Tourism Market Study: “Orbital Space Travel & Destinations with Suborbital Space Travel” (2002)

NASA/STA Cooperative Study:“General Public Space Travel and Tourism – Volume 2: Workshop Proceedings”
(Summary of a Space Act Agreement Study, including a workshop held at Georgetown University, Washington, DC, February 19-21, 1997)

NASA/STA Cooperative Study: “General Public Space Travel and Tourism – Volume 1: Executive Summary”
(Summary of a Space Act Agreement Study, including a workshop held at Georgetown University, Washington, D.C. February 19-21, 1997)

Astronauts and Rescue Agreement (1968)
UN RES 2345 (XXII)

ICAO Convention (Chicago Convention) (1944)  
 

 
Workshops and conferences

2nd International IAA Conference on Private Human Access to Space
Arcachon, France, 30 May-1 June 2011

ESA/ECSL Practitioners’ Forum: “Manned Spaceflight Safety Issues: Legal and Policy Aspects”
ESA Headquarters, Paris, France, 18 March 2011

IIASL Symposium: “The Regulation of Suborbital Flights in the European Contest”
Leiden, 16 September 2010

Report

1st IAA Symposium on Private Manned Access to Space
Arcachon, France, 28-30 May, 2008.

ECSL Practitioners’ Forum 2006: “Space Tourism: Legal and Policy Aspects”
ESA Headquarters, Paris, France, 31 March 2006

Report (ECSL Newsletter, N. 33, Special Edition, 2006)
 
 

 
Books

M. J. RYCROFT
“The Space Transportation Market: Evolution or Revolution?”
Springer, 2000.

E. SEEDHOUSE
“Tourists in Space: A Practical Guide”
Springer-Verlag, Praxis Publishing, 2008.
 
 

 
Articles

R. ABEYRATNE
“Space Tourism: Parallel Synergies between Air and Space Law?”
ZLW, Year 2004, Issue 2.

R. ABEYRATNE
“ICAO's Involvement in Outer Space Affairs: A Need for Closer Scrutiny?”
Journal of Space Law, Vol. 30, 2004, p. 185.

D. BENSOUSSAN
“Space Tourism Risks: A Space Insurance Perspective”
Acta Astronautica, Vol. 66, Issues 11-12, 2010, pp. 1633-1638.

P. J. BLOUNT
“Informed Consent v. ITAR: Regulatory Conflicts that Could Constrain Commercial Human Space Flight”
Acta Astronautica, Vol. 66, Issues 11-12, 2010, pp. 1608-1612.

A. CARTIER
“Symposium on the Regulation of Sub-Orbital Flights in the European Context”
Air and Space Law, Vol. 36, 2011, pp. 87-92.

G. CATALANO SGROSSO
“Legal Aspects of the Astronaut in Extravehicular Activity and the “Space Tourist”
In “Legal and Ethical Framework for Astronauts in Space Sojourns:. Proceedings of the ECSL/ESA/IDEST/UNESCO Symposium, House of UNESCO, Paris, 29 October 2004”, p. 57.

J. CLOPPEMBURG
“Legal Aspects of Space Tourism”
In M. BENKÖ, K.-U. SCHROGL (eds.), “Essential Air and Space Law 2 - Space Law: Current Problems and Perspectives for Future Regulation”, Eleven International Publishing, Utrecht, The Netherlands, 2005, p. 191.

F. von der DUNK
“Sun, Sea, Sand … And Space: Launching Tourists into Outer Space from the Dutch Caribbean”
In “Proceedings of the Fifty-Third Colloquium on the Law of Outer Space, 2010” (IAC-10.E7.5.6).

F. von der DUNK
“Space for Tourism? Legal Aspects of Private Spaceflight for Tourist Purposes”
In “Proceedings of the Forty-Ninth Colloquium on the Law of Outer Space, 2006”, pp. 18-28.

F. von der DUNK
“Passing the Buck to Rogers: International Liability Issues in Private Spaceflight”
Nebraska Law Review, N. 86, 2007, pp. 400-38.

J. C. EASTER
“Spring Break 2023: See of Tranquillity: The Effect of Space Tourism on Outer Space Law and World Policy in the New Millennium” Suffolk Transnational Law Review, Vol. 26, 2003, p. 349.

A. FARAND
“Space Tourism: Legal Considerations Pertaining to Suborbital Flights”
In G. LAFFERRANDERIE, S. MARCHISIO (eds.), “The Astronauts and Rescue Agreement: Lessons Learned”, ESA/ECSL Publications, 2011.

P. Van FENEMA
“Suborbital Flights and ICAO”
Air and Space Law, Vol. 30, Issue 6, 2005, pp. 396-411.

G. FERNANDEZ ARRIBAS
“El Turista Espacial y su Consideración en el Derecho Internacional Público”
Revista Brasileira de Direito Aeronáutico e Espacial, N. 92, 2009, p. 32.

O. FERNÁNDEZ BRITAL
“Turismo Espacial”
Revista Nacional de Derecho Aeronáutico y Espacial, N. 3, 2008.

S. FREELAND
“Up, Up…and Back: The Emergence of Space Tourism and Its Impact on the International Law of Outer Space”
Chicago Journal of International Law, Vol. 6, Issue 1, 2005, pp. 1-22.

S. FREELAND, T. L. MASSON-ZWAAN
“Between Heaven and Earth: The Legal Challenges of Human Space Travel”
Acta Astronautica, Vol. 66, Issues 11-12, 2010, pp. 1597-1607.

S. FREELAND, T. L. MASSON-ZWAAN
“Private Human Access to Space: Legal Challenges and Possibilities”
In “Proceedings of the 1st IAA Symposium on Private Manned Access to Space, Arcachon, France, 28-30 May, 2008”.

J. S. GREENBERG
“Competitiveness of Commercial Space Transportation”
Space Policy, Vol. 9, Issue 3, 1993, p. 220.

N. HAZAN
“FAA Regulation of Crew and Passenger Safety aboard Reusable Launch Vehicles”
Annals of Air and Space Law, Vol. XXVI, 2001.

S. HOBE
“Space Tourism as a Challenge to the Astronaut Concept”
In G. LAFFERRANDERIE, S. MARCHISIO (eds.), “The Astronauts and Rescue Agreement: Lessons Learned”, ESA/ECSL Publications, 2011.

S. HOBE
“The Legal Regime for Private Space Tourism Activities: An Overview”
Acta Astronautica, Vol. 66, Issues 11-12, 2010, pp. 1593-1596.

S. HOBE
“Space Tourism Activities: Emerging Challenges to Air and Space Law?”
Journal of Space Law, Vol. 33, N. 2, 2007.

S. HOBE, J. CLOPPEMBURG
“Towards a New Aerospace Convention? – Selected Legal Issues of Space Tourism”
In “Proceedings of the Forty-Seventh Colloquium on the Law of Outer Space, 2004”, pp. 377–385.

T. HUGHES, E. ROSENBERG
“Space Travel Law (and Politics): The Evolution of the Commercial Space Launch Amendments Act”
Journal of Space Law, Vol. 31, 2005, pp. 1-53.

A. ITO
“The Advent of a New Era of Commercial Space Tourism and Associated Legal Issues”
In “Proceedings of the Fifty-Second Colloquium on the Law of Outer Space, 2009”, p. 312.

R. S. JAKHU
“International Regulation of Emerging Modes of Space Transportation”
In J. N. PELTON, R. M. JAKHU, “Space Safety Regulations and Standards”
Elsevier, 2010, Chapter 17, pp. 215-238.

A. KERREST
“Exploration, Exploitation, Installation of a Station on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, Lessons Learned from Antarctica”
In G. LAFFERRANDERIE, S. MARCHISIO (eds.), “The Astronauts and Rescue Agreement: Lessons Learned”, ESA/ECSL Publications, 2011.

A. KERREST
“Le rattachement aux États des activités privées dans l’espace: Réflexions à la lumière du droit de la mer” (“Linking States to Private Activities in Space: Reflections Inspired by the Law of the Sea”)
Annals of Air and Space Law, Vol. 22, Part II, Editions Pédone, Paris, 1997.

T. KNUTSON
“What Is “Informed Consent” for Space-Flight Participants in the Soon-To-Launch Space Tourism Industry?”
Journal of Space Law, Vol. 33, N. 1, 2007, pp. 105-110.

V. KOPAL
“The 1968 Rescue Agreement: History of Negotiations and Their Outcome”
In G. LAFFERRANDERIE, S. MARCHISIO (eds.), “The Astronauts and Rescue Agreement: Lessons Learned”, ESA/ECSL Publications, 2011.

A. KOTAITE
“Formal Regulatory Framework Needed to Govern Expanding Operation in Outer Space”
ICAO Journal, Vol. 55, 2000, p. 5.

R. J. LEE
“The Liability Convention and Private Space Launch Services: Domestic Regulatory Responses”
Annals of Air and Space Law, Vol. XXXI, 2006.

D. MALFITANO
“Space Tourism: The Final Frontier of Law” Rutgers Computer and Technology Law Journal, Vol. 35, 2009, p. 203.

J.-B. MARCIACQ, Y. MORIER, F. TOMASELLO, Z. ERDÉLYI, M. GERHARD

“Accommodating Sub-Orbital Flights into the EASA Regulatory System”
In J. N. PELTON, R. M. JAKHU, “Space Safety Regulations and Standards”
Elsevier, 2010, Chapter 16, pp. 187-212.

T. L. MASSON-ZWAAN
“Regulation of Sub-orbital Space Tourism in Europe: A Role for EU/ESA?”
Air and Space Law, Vol. 35, Issue 3, 2010, pp. 263-272.

T. L. MASSON-ZWAAN
“Article IV of the Outer space Treaty and Private Human Access to Space”
In “Proceedings of the International Institute of Space Law, 2008”, 2009, pp. 536-546.

T. L. MASSON-ZWAAN
“Article VI of the Outer Space Treaty and Private Human Access to Space”
In “Proceedings of the Third Eilene Galloway Symposium on Critical Issues in Space Law, Washington DC, USA, 11 December 2008”.

T. L. MASSON-ZWAAN
“The Martin Marietta Case or How to Safeguard Private Commercial Space Activities”
In “Proceedings of the ECSL Summer Course on Space Law and Policy Course: Basic Materials”, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1993, document 41, pp. 293-297 (also published in “Proceedings of the Thirty-Five Colloquium on the Law of Outer Space, 1992”, 1993, pp. 239-247).

M. C. MINEIRO
“Regulation and Licensing of US Commercial Spaceports”
In J. N. PELTON, R. M. JAKHU, “Space Safety Regulations and Standards”, Elsevier, 2010, Chapter 14, pp. 161-176.

M. C. MINEIRO
“Law and Regulation Governing U.S. Commercial Spaceports: Licensing, Liability, and Legal Challenges”
Journal of Air Law and Commerce, Vol. 73, Issue 4, 2008, pp. 759-805.

S. NANDAKUMAR
“Legal Impasse: Commercialization of Space through Reusable Sub-Orbital Launchers”
In “Proceedings of the Forty-Seventh Colloquium on the Law of Outer Space, 2004”, Vol. 47, pp. 452-460.

P. NESGOS
“Commercial Space Transportation: A New Industry Emerges”
Annals of Air and Space Law, Vol. 16, 1991, p. 393.

Z. N. O’BRIEN
“Equity and the Space Tourist”
In “Proceedings of the Fifty-Second Colloquium on the Law of Outer Space, 2009”, p. 320.

Z. N. O’BRIEN
“Liability for Injury, Loss or Damage to the Space Tourist”
In “Proceedings of the Forty-Seventh Colloquium on the Law of Outer Space, 2004”, Vol. 47, pp. 386-396.

P. ORDYNA
“Insuring Human Space Flight: An Underwriter’s Dilemma”
Journal of Space Law, Vol. 36, N. 1, 2010.

C. E. PARSONS
“Space Tourism: Regulating Passage to the Happiest Place off Earth”
Chapman Law Review, Vol. 9, 2006, p. 493.

J. N. PELTON
“The International Challenges of Regulation of Commercial Space Flight”
In J. N. PELTON, R. M. JAKHU, “Space Safety Regulations and Standards”
Elsevier, 2010, Chapter 23, pp. 289-300.

T. RANKIN
“Space Tourism: Fanny Packs, Ugly T-Shirts, and the Law in Outer Space”
Suffolk University Law Review, Vol. 36, 2003, p. 695.

C. T. RYABINKIN
“Let There Be Flight: It's Time to Reform the Regulation of Commercial Space Travel”
Journal of Air Law and Commerce, Vol. 69, 2004, pp. 101.

T. SGOBBA, J. N. PELTON
“Certification of New Experimental Commercial Human Space-Flight Vehicles”
In J. N. PELTON, R. M. JAKHU, “Space Safety Regulations and Standards”
Elsevier, 2010, Chapter 8.

M. STAYDUHAR
“Flying the Friendly Skies May Not Be so Friendly in Outer Space: International and Domestic Law Leaves United States’ Citizens Space Tourists without a Remedy for Injury Caused by Government Space Debris”
University of Pittsburgh Journal of Technology Law & Policy, Vol. 7, 2006, p. 1.

E. J. STEPTOE
“Astronaut Rescue and Return in a Era of Planetary Exploration: “Envoys of Mankind”, “Space Flight Participants” and Celestial Settlers”
In G. LAFFERRANDERIE, S. MARCHISIO (eds.), “The Astronauts and Rescue Agreement: Lessons Learned”, ESA/ECSL Publications, 2011.

M. J. SUNDHAL
“The Duty to Rescue Space Tourists and Return Private Spacecraft”
Journal of Space Law, Vol. 35, N. 1, 2009, pp. 163-200.

M. J. SUNDHAL
“Bigelow Aerospace's Commodity Jurisdiction Request under ITAR and Its Impact on the Future of Private Spaceflight”
In “Proceedings of the Fifty-Second Colloquium on the Law of Outer Space, 2009”, p. 462.

S. TREPCZYNSKI
“The Benefits of Granting Immunity to Private Companies Involved in Commercial Space Ventures”
Annals of Air and Space Law, Vol. XXXI, 2006.

M. WALKER
“Suborbital Space Tourism Flights: An Overview of Some Regulatory Issues at the Interface of Air and Space Law”
Journal of Space Law, Vol. 33, N. 2, 2007.

H. A. WASSENBERGH
“The Law Governing International Private Commercial Activities of Space Transportation”
Journal of Space Law, Vol. 21, Issue 2, 1993. p. 123.

K. WONG
“Developing Commercial Human Space-Flight Regulations”
In J. N. PELTON, R. M. JAKHU, “Space Safety Regulations and Standards”
Elsevier, 2010, Chapter 13, pp. 149-159.

J. A. YEHIA, K.-U. SCHROGL
“European Regulations for Private Human Spaceflight in the Context of Space Traffic Management”
Acta Astronautica, Vol. 66, Issues 11-12, 2010, pp. 1618-1624.

Y. ZHAO
“A Legal Regime for Space Tourism: Creating Legal Certainty in Outer Space”
Journal of Air Law and Commerce, Vol. 74, N. 4, 2009, pp. 959.
 
 

 
Other useful readings

“Europe and Space Tourism”
Vega Group Briefing Paper

“Medical Safety Consideration for Passengers on Short-Duration Commercial Orbital Space Flights”
Report of the International Academy for Astronautics (IAA) Study Group, 2009.

L. BILLINGS
“Exploration for the Masses? Or Joyrides for the Ultra-Rich? Prospects for Space Tourism”
Space Policy, Vol. 22, Issue 3, 2006, pp. 162-164.

P. COLLINS, A. AUTINO
“What the Growth of a Space Tourism Industry Could Contribute to Employment, Economic Growth, Environmental Protection, Education, Culture and World Peace”
Acta Astronautica, Vol. 66, Issues 11-12, pp. 1553-1562.

P. COLLINS
“The Space Tourism Industry in 2030”
In S. W. JOHNSON, K. M. CHUA, R. G. GALLOWAY, P. I. RICHTER (eds.), “Space 2000. Proceedings of Space 2000: The Seventh International Conference”, ASCE, Reston, VA, 2009.

W. A. GAUBATZ
“Sub-Orbital Flights: A Starting Point for Space Tourism”
Acta Astronautica, Vol. 51, 2002, pp. 647-666.

D. MALFITANO “Space Tourism: The Final Frontier” Rutgers Computer and Technology Law Journal, 2009.
 
 

 
Useful links

Armadillo Aerospace

Bigelow Aerospace

Blue Origin

BBC News on the SpaceShipOne’s first flight

BBC News on the SpaceShipOne’s victoty of the Ansari X PRIZE

BBC ON THIS DAY: 15 October 2003

BBC ON THIS DAY: 28 April 2001

Charles Lindbergh website on the Raymond Orteig Prize

International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)

International Space Transport Association (ISTA)

RocketShip Tours

Space Adventures Ltd.

Space.com on the America’s Space Prize

Space.com on the rules of the America’s Space Prize

Space Experience Curaçao

Space Future

U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Office of Commercial Space Transportation

Virgin Galactic

XCOR Aeropsace

X PRIZE Foundation

X PRIZE Foundation Space Initiative website on the Ansari X PRIZE
 
 
Last update: 27 June 2011

 


 
 
 
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