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Liability/ Responsibilityprinter friendly page
Liability/ Responsibility
 
UN Documents
Other documents
Books
Articles
Useful links
 

 
UN Documents

General Assembly Resolution: “Application of the concept of the “launching State”” (2004)
“UN A/RES/59/115

Convention on the Registration of Objects Launched into Outer Space (Registration Convention) (1975)
UNGA RES 3235 (XXIX)

Convention on International Liability for Damage Caused by Space Objects (Liability Convention) (1972)
UNGA RES 2777 (XXVI)

Outer Space Treaty (1967)
UNGA RES 2222 (XXI)  
 

 
Other documents


French Law n. 2008-518 of 3 June 2008 concerning space activities
(unofficial translation offered to the Journal of Space Law)

“Space Liability Act” (Republic of Korea)
Law n. 8852 of 21 December 2007 (unofficial translation)

ESA Additional Declaration on Liability for Damage Caused by Space Objects (2000)

Report of the International Law Association (ILA) London Conference (2000):
Main conclusions of the Introductory Report of the Special Rapporteur for the 1972 Liabilty Convention, M. Williams (p. 4, and comments on the report at p. 10).

Law Governing the Transfer of Responsibilities for Space Activities (Germany)

Law of 8 June 1990, as amended in 1998 (original version)

Agreement between the United States and Japan Concerning Cross-Wavier of Liability for Cooperation in the Exploration and Use of Space for Peaceful Purposes, with Annex and Exchange of Notes (1995)

Memorandum of Agreement on Liability for Satellite Launches Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the People’s Republic of China (1988, entered into force in 1989)

Law for the implementation of the Convention on International
Liability for damages caused by space objects (Italy)
Law n. 23 of 25 January 1983 (unofficial translation)

Settlement of Claim between Canada and the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics for Damages Caused by “Cosmos 954” (1981)

ESA Declaration of Acceptance of the Astronauts Agreement, the Liability Convention and the Registration Convention (adopted by the ESA Council on 12 December 1978, deposited on 2 January 1979)

Resolution of the Council of the European Space Agency on the Agency’s Legal Liability (1977)
ESA/C/XXII/Res.3

ESA Declaration of Acceptance of the UN Liability Convention (1976)
 
 

 
Books

J. Y. AHN
“Product Liability in Space Transportation: The Liability of the Manufacturer of Space Object”
Leiden University, The Netherlands, 2005.

R. BENDER
“Space Transportation Liability: National and International Aspects”
Kluwer Law International, 1997.

B. A. HURWITZ
“State Liability for Outer Space Activities: In Accordance with the 1972 Convention on International Liability for Damage Caused by Space Objects”
Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Dordrecht, the Netherlands, 1992.

V. KAYSER
“Launching Space Objects: Issues of Liability and Future Prospects”
Springer, 2010.

L. RAVIGNON
“Gestion et partage des risques dans les projets spatiaux: Question d'actualité: 2e Colloque de la Commission spatiale de la Société française de droit aérien et spatial, mercredi 3 octobre 2007”
Pedone, 2008.
 
 

 
Articles

I. AWFORD
“Legal Liability Arriving from Commercial Activities in Outer Space”
In S. MOSTESHAR (ed.), “Research and Invention in Outer Space, Liability and Property Rights”, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1995.

H. A. BAKER
“Liability for Damage Caused in Outer Space by Space Refuse”
Annals of Air and Space Law, Vol. XIII, 1988, p. 183.

A. BIANCHI
“Environmental Harm Resulting from the Use of Nuclear Power Sources in Outer Space: Some Remarks on State Responsibility and Liability”
In F. FRANCIONI, T. SCOVAZZI (eds.), “International Responsibility for Environmental Harm”, 1991.

J. R. BONIN
“Responsibility and Liability in International Space Law as a Matter of Sequence and Succession”
In “Proceedings of the Fifty-Second Colloquium on the Law of Outer Space, 2009”, p. 27.

J. A. BOSCO
“Liability of the United States Government for Outer Space Activities which Result in Injuries, Damages or Death According to United States National Law”
Journal of Air Law and Commerce, Vol. 51, 1986-1987, p. 809.

P. D. BOSTWICK
“Liability of Aerospace Manufacturers: MacPherson v. Buick Sputters into the Space Age”
Journal of Space Law, Vol. 22, 1994, p. 72.

A. BREARLY
“Reflections upon the Notion of Liability: The instances of Cosmos 954 and Space Debris”
Journal of Space Law, Vol. 34, N. 2, 2008.

J. A. BURKE
“Convention on International Liability for Damage Caused by Space Objects: Definition and Determination of Damages after the Cosmos 954 Incident”
Fordham International Law Journal, Vol. 8, Issue 1, 1985, pp. 255-285.

D. E. CASSIDY
“Current Space Insurance: Market Conditions” (Comment) Journal of Space Law, Vol. 25, 1997, p. 155.

D. E. CASSIDY
“Allocation of Liabilities between Government and Private Sector and Implications on Insurance for Space Commercialization”
In “Proceedings of the Thirty-Third Colloquium on the Law of Outer Space, 1990”.

B. CHENG
“International Responsibility and Liability for Launch Activities”
Air and Space Law, Vol. 20, Issue 6, 1995, pp. 297-310.

C. Q. CHRISTOL
“International Liability for Damages Caused by Space Objects”
In F. LYALL, P. B. LARSEN (eds.), “Space Law”, Ashgate, 2007.

C. Q. CHRISTOL
“Limits to State’s Liability for Extra-territorial Activities”
In “Proceedings of the Forty-Fourth Colloquium on the Law of Outer Space, 2001”, Vol. 44, pp. 319-325.

C. Q. CHRISTOL
“International Liability for Damage Caused by Space Objects”
American Journal of International Law, Vol. 74, 1980, pp. 346-371.

P. CLERC
“La gestion et le partage des risques sous l’angle de la puissance publique et les solutions envisagées par la future loi spatiale française”
In L. RAVIGNON, “Gestion et partage des risques dans les projets spatiaux: Question d'actualité: 2e Colloque de la Commission spatiale de la Société française de droit aérien et spatial, mercredi 3 octobre 2007”, Pedone, 2008.

M. COUSTON
“Le régime de la responsabilité juridique et financière dans la nouvelle loi spatiale française”
Revue française de droit aérien et spatial, Vol. 253, N. 1, 2010, pp. 5-16.

P. DEMPSEY
“Liability for Surface Damage Caused by Aerospace Vehicles”
In “Proceedings of the Fifty-Second Colloquium on the Law of Outer Space, 2009”, p. 221.

I. H. P. DIEDERIKS-VERSCHOOR
“L’Assurance: Satellites”
Annals of Air and Space Law, Vol. X, 1985, p. 319.

H. DIM DOO
“Some Considerations of the Liability of the Compensation for Damages Caused by Space Debris”
Law/Technology, Vol. 28, Issue 4, 1995, p. 1.

F. von der DUNK
“Too-Close Encounters of the Third-Party Kind: Will the Liability Convention Stand the Test of the Cosmos 2251-Iridium 33 Collision?”
In “Proceedings of the Fifty-Second Colloquium on the Law of Outer Space, 2009”, p. 199.

F. von der DUNK
“Passing the Buck to Rogers: International Liability Issues in Private Spaceflight”
Nebraska Law Review, n. 86, 2007, 400-38.

F. von der DUNK
“Liability for Global Navigation Satellite Services: A Comparative Analysis of GPS and Galileo”
Journal of Space Law, Vol. 30. Issue 1, 2004, pp. 129-179.

F. von der DUNK
“The 1972 Liability Convention: Enhancing Adherence and Effective Application”
In “Proceedings of the Forty-First Colloquium on the Law of Outer Space, 1998”, 1999, pp. 366-73.

J. M. de FARAMIÑÀN GILBERT
“Convention sur la responsabilité internationale pour les dommages causés par des objets spatiaux”
In “Proceedings of the ECSL Summer Course on Space Law and Policy, University of Lapland, Finland”, ESA/ECSL Publications, 1998, pp. 1-24.

A. FARAND
“Jurisdiction and Liability Issues in Carrying out Commercial Activities in the International Space Station (ISS) Programme”
In F. von der DUNK and M. BRUS (eds.), “The International Space Station: Commercial Utilisation from a European Legal Perspective”, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Leiden-Boston, 2006.

D. I. FISHER
“Injury to Rights of Personality Caused by Satellite Programme
Contents: Prospects of Relief under the Law of Outer Space” Scandinavian Studies in Law, Vol. 39, 2000, pp. 419-430.

S. FREELAND
“There’s a Satellite in My Backyard! - Mir and the Convention on International Liability for Damage Caused by Space Objects”
University of New South Wales Law Journal, Vol. 24, Issue 2, 2001, pp. 462-484.

M. GERHARD
“Transfer of Operation and Control with Respect to Space Objects: Problems of Responsibility and Liability of States”
ZLW, Year 2002, Issue 3.

A. A. GOLROUNIA, M. BARAMI
“Outer Space Treaty and State Responsibility: a change of Concept”
In “Proceedings of the Forty-Fourth Colloquium on the Law of Outer Space, 2001”, Vol. 44, 2002, pp. 73-77.

P. HAANAPPEL
“Enforcing the Liability Convention: Ensuring the Binding Force of the Award of the Claims Commission”
In M. BENKÖ, K.-U. SCHROGL (eds.), “Essential Air and Space Law 2 - Space Law: Current Problems and Perspectives for Future Regulation”, Eleven International Publishing, Utrecht, The Netherlands, 2005, p. 113.

F. Y. HASHIM
“The Convention on International Liability for Damage Caused by Space Objects and the Domestic Regulatory Responses to Its Implication”
In “Proceedings of the United Nations/Republic of Korea Workshop on Space Law: United Nations Treaties on Outer Space: Actions at the National Level, Daejeon, Republic of Korea, 3-6 November 2003”, United Nations, 2004, p. 483.

S. HOBE
“Aerospace Vehicles: Questions of Registration, Liability, and Institutions: A European Perspective”
Annals of Air and Space Law, Vol. XXIX, 2004.

R. S. JAKHU
“Safety and Liability Aspects of Solar Power Satellites”
In “Proceedings of the Fifty-Third Colloquium on the Law of Outer Space, 2010” (IAC-10.E7.5.7).

R. KAUL
“Liability Implications of the Use of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) for Communication, Navigation, Surveillance/Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM) in Civil Aviation, with Special Focus on India”
Annals of Air and Space Law, Vol. XXXV, 2010.

A. KERREST
“Liability for Damage Caused by Space Activities”
In M. BENKÖ, K.-U. SCHROGL (eds.), “Essential Air and Space Law 2 - Space Law: Current Problems and Perspectives for Future Regulation”, Eleven International Publishing, Utrecht, The Netherlands, 2005, p. 91.

A. KERREST
“Liability Convention and National Licensing Regimes”
In “Proceedings of the United Nations/Republic of Korea Workshop on Space Law: United Nations Treaties on Outer Space: Actions at the National Level, Daejeon, Republic of Korea, 3-6 November 2003”, United Nations, 2004, p. 235.

A. KERREST
“The Liability Convention and Liability for Space Activities”
In “Proceedings of the United Nations/International Institute of Air and Space Law Workshop: Capacity Building in Space Law, The Hague, 18-21 November 2001”, United Nations, 2003, p. 25.

D. H. KIM
“Legal Problems Concerning Space Debris and Liability Convention”
In “Proceedings of the Fifty-Second Colloquium on the Law of Outer Space, 2009”, p. 210.

S. KOZUKA
“Third Party Liability Arising from GNSS-Related Services”
In “Proceedings of the Fifty-Second Colloquium on the Law of Outer Space, 2009”, p. 232.

G. LAFFERRENDERIE
“Jurisdiction and Control of Space Objects and the Case of an International Intergovernmental Organisation (ESA)”
ZLW, Year 2005, Issue 2.

I. LAGARRIGUE
“Are Existing Navigation Satellite Liability Provisions Adequate to Govern a Navigation Satellite Malfunction”
In Institute of Air and Space Law of the University of Cologne/DLR (eds.), “Project 2001: Legal Framework for the Commercial Use of Outer Space: Proceedings of the Workshops on Telecommunications, Berlin, 8-9 June 2000”, Institute of Air and Space Law of the University of Cologne/DLR, Cologne, 2000, p. 205 (working document with limited distribution).

J. LAMPERTIUS
“The Need for an Effective Liability Regime for Damage Caused by Debris in Outer Space”
Michigan Journal of International Law, Vol. 13, Issue 2, 1992, p. 447.

P. LARSEN
“The Legal Consequences of U.S. Legislative Implementation of the Liability Convention”
In “Proceedings of the Fifty-Third Colloquium on the Law of Outer Space, 2010” (IAC-10.E7.5.15).

R. J. LEE
“The Liability Convention and Private Space Launch Services: Domestic Regulatory Responses”
Annals of Air and Space Law, Vol. XXXI, 2006.

R. J. LEE
“The Convention on International Liability for Damage Caused by Space Objects and the Domestic Regulatory Responses to Its Implications”
In “Proceedings of the United Nations/Republic of Korea Workshop on Space Law: United Nations Treaties on Outer Space: Actions at the National Level, Daejeon, Republic of Korea, 3-6 November 2003”, United Nations, 2004, p. 438.

P. MANZINI, A. MASUTTI
“An International Civil Liability Regime for the Galileo Services: A Proposal”
Air and Space Law, Vol. 33, Issue 2, 2008, pp. 114-131.

S. MARCHISIO
“International Legal Regime on Outer Space: Liability Convention and Registration Convention”
In “Proceedings of the United Nations/Nigeria Workshop on Space Law: Meeting International Responsibility and Addressing Domestic Needs, Abuja, 21-24 November 2005”, United Nations, 2006, pp. 18-27.

S. MARCHISIO
“The 1983 Italian Law N. 23 on the Compensation for Damage Caused by Space Objects”
ZLW, n. 2, 2005, pp. 261-270.

S. MARCHISIO
“Aspetti generali della responsabilità connessa all’uso dei mezzi aerospaziali”
In F. DURANTE (ed.), “La regolamentazione giuridica dei mezzi di trasporto aero-spaziali”, Edizioni Scientifiche Italiane, Napoli, 2000, pp. 61-71.

M. C. MINEIRO
“Law and Regulation Governing U.S. Commercial Spaceports: Licensing, Liability, and Legal Challenges”
Journal of Air Law and Commerce, Vol. 73, Issue 4, 2008, pp. 759-805.

X. MO
“National Liability for Damage outside Territory Caused by Space Objects and Suggestions to China’s Legislation”
In “Proceedings of the Forty-Sixth Colloquium on the Law of Outer Space, 2003”, Vol. 46, pp. 202-209.

S. MOYSAN
“L’assurance des activités spatiales”
In L. RAVILLON (ed.), “Le droit des activités spatiales à l'aube du XXIe siècle”, Litec, 2005.

Z. N. O’BRIEN
“Consumer Protection and the Limitation of Liability in the National Regulation of the Space Industry”
In “Proceedings of the Forty-Eight Colloquium on the Law of Outer Space, 2005”, Vol. 48, pp. 229-239.

Z. N. O’BRIEN
“Liability for Injury, Loss or Damage to the Space Tourist”
In “Proceedings of the Forty-Seventh Colloquium on the Law of Outer Space, 2004”, Vol. 47, pp. 386-396.

S. OSPINA
“International Responsibility and State Liability in an Age of Globalization and Privatization”
Annals of Air and Space Law, Vol. XXVII, 2002.

P. PIC
“Le contentieux lié à la gestion des risques dans les activités spatiales”
In L. RAVIGNON, “Gestion et partage des risques dans les projets spatiaux: question d'actualité: 2e Colloque de la Commission spatiale de la Société française de droit aérien et spatial, mercredi 3 octobre 2007”, Pedone, 2008.

L. D. ROBERTS
“Addressing the Problem of Orbital Space Debris: Combining International Regulatory and Liability Regimes”
Boston College International & Comparative Law Review, Vol.15, 1992, p. 51.

K.-U. SCHROGL
“Annex to the Working Group [on Launch and Associated Services] Report: Responsibility and Liability: Need for National Regulation (incl. Harmonization)”
In K.-H. BÖCKSTIEGEL (ed.), “Project 2001 – Legal Framework for the Commercial Use of Outer space: Recommendations and Conclusion to Develop the Present State of the Law”, Carl Heymanns Verlag, Cologne, 2002, p. 109.

B. SCHWARTZ, M. L. BERLIN
“After the Fall: An Analysis of Canadian Legal Claims for Damage Caused by Cosmos 954”
Revue de Droit de McGill, Vol. 27, 1982, pp. 676-719.

SILVA, SOBRINHO, VEIGA, SILVA
“As Atividades Espaciais Brasileiras e o Problema da Responsabilidade Internacional”
Revista Brasileira de Direito Aeronáutico e Espacial, N. 82, 2001.

L. J. SMITH
“Facing Up to Third Party Liability for Space Activities: Some Reflections”
In “Proceedings of the Fifty-Second Colloquium on the Law of Outer Space, 2009”, p. 255.

L. J. SMITH
“Grounding Space: Liability for Commercial Space Operations”
In A. C. CIACCHI [et al.] (eds.), “Haftungsrecht im dritten Millennium (Liability in the Third Millennium): Liber amicorum Gert Brüggemeier”, Nomos, 2009.

M. STAYDUHAR
“Flying the Friendly Skies May not be so Friendly in Outer Space: International and Domestic Law Leaves United States’ Citizens Space Tourists without a Remedy for Injury Caused by Government Space Debris”
University of Pittsburgh Journal of Technology Law and Policy, Vol. 7, 2006, p. 1.

A. STEVIGNON
“La responsabilité du constructeur de satellites dans le projet de loi relatif aux opérations spatiales”
In L. RAVIGNON, “Gestion et partage des risques dans les projets spatiaux: Question d'actualité: 2e Colloque de la Commission spatiale de la Société française de droit aérien et spatial, mercredi 3 octobre 2007”, Pedone, 2008.

A. D. TEREKHOV
“International Liability for Damage Caused by Space Objects with Nuclear Power Sources on Board”
In “Proceedings of the Thirty-Fifth Colloquium on the Law of Outer Space, 1992”.

A. D. TEREKHOV
“International Responsibility for Using Nuclear Power Sources in Outer Space: Reflections on the Text Adopted by COPUOS”
In “Proceedings of the Thirty-Fourth Colloquium on the Law of Outer Space, 1991”.

J. TORT
“Astronauts in Space Sojourns: Liability and Insurance Issues: Ethical Considerations”
In “Legal and Ethical Framework for Astronauts in Space Sojourns: Proceedings of the ECSL/ESA/IDEST/UNESCO Symposium, House of UNESCO, Paris, 29 October 2004”, p. 87.

S. S. VERSAGGI
“Normativa imperante en materia de Responsabilidad Aeroespacial”
Revista Nacional de Derecho Aeronáutico y Espacial, N. 2, 2008.

L. VIIKARI
“Nuclear Liability: A Feasible Model for the Space Sector?”
In “Proceedings of the Fifty-Second Colloquium on the Law of Outer Space, 2009”, p. 242.

K. M. WEIDAW
“The Lunar Base: Liability in Perspective”
In “Proceedings of the Forty-Fifth Colloquium on the Law of Outer Space, 2002”, Vol. 45, pp. 375-395.

C. WELLS
“Le contrat d’assurance spatiale”
In L. RAVILLON (ed.), “Le droit des activités spatiales à l'aube du XXIe siècle”, Litec, 2005.

C. ZANGHI
“La Convention sur la responsabilité internationale pour les dommages causés par des objets spatiaux”
In “Proceedings of the ECSL Summer Course on Space Law and Policy: Basic Materials”, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1994.

G. P. ZHUKOV
“The Problem of Absolute Liability on the Moon”
In “Proceedings of the Fifty-Second Colloquium on the Law of Outer Space, 2009”, p. 251.

J. ZISSU
“ASTROREGS: The “Rules of the Road” in Outer Space”
In “Proceedings of the Forty-Sixth Colloquium on the Law of Outer Space, 2003”, Vol. 46, pp. 340-350.
 
 

 
Useful links

UN Register of objects launched into outer space
 
 
Last update: 27 June 2011

 


 
 
 
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