Samantha Cristoforetti was born in Milan, Italy, in 1977. She studied at the Technische Universität Munich, Germany, the Ecole Nationale Supérieure de l’Aéronautique et de l’Espace in Toulouse, France, and the Mendeleev University of Chemical Technologies in Moscow, Russia. She holds a master’s degree in engineering, as well as a master’s degree in aeronautical sciences from the University of Naples Federico II in Italy. Lt. Cristoforetti is a fighter pilot with the Italian Air Force. In her leisure time, she enjoys mountaineering, scuba diving and caving.
Alexander Gerst was born in Künzelsau, Germany, in 1976. He studied at the University of Karlsruhe, Germany, where he received a diploma in geophysics. He also studied Earth Science at Victoria University of Wellington in New Zealand, where he was awarded a Master of Science. He has been working as a researcher since 2001. In his spare time, he enjoys mountaineering, diving, climbing and skydiving.
Andreas Mogensen was born in Copenhagen, Denmark, in 1976. He received a master’s degree in engineering from Imperial College, London, and a doctorate in engineering from the University of Texas at Austin, in the United States. He has been working as an attitude & orbit control system and guidance, navigation & control engineer for HE Space Operations. His pastimes include rugby, mountaineering and diving.
Luca Parmitano was born in Paternò, Italy, in 1976. He holds a diploma in aeronautical sciences from the Italian Air Force Academy and was trained as a Full Experimental Test Pilot at EPNER, the French test pilot school in Istres. Capt. Parmitano, a pilot with the Italian Air Force, is an active scuba diver and enjoys climbing and paragliding.
Timothy Peake was born in Chichester, UK, in 1972. He completed a degree in flight dynamics and qualified as a Full Experimental Test Pilot at the UK’s Empire Test Pilots' School. He is an officer serving with Her Majesty’s Forces as an Experimental Test Pilot. He is an avid cross country runner and includes climbing and caving among his leisure activities.
Thomas Pesquet was born in Rouen, France, in 1978. He received a master’s degree from the Ecole Nationale Supérieure de l’Aéronautique et de l’Espace in Toulouse, France. He worked at the French space agency, CNES, as a research engineer, and then went on to become a pilot for Air France where he is currently flying Airbus A320s. He enjoys jogging, swimming, squash and judo and has experience in diving and paragliding.