An alternative novel mission concept has been recently conceived based on conductive tethers providing both power and propulsion at Jupiter to allow a cost-effective tour of the Jovian system including rendezvous with the moons Io and Europa..
 Sanmartin and Lorenzini, in Proceedings of the 8th Spacecraft Charging Technology Conference, Huntsville, AL, USA, October 20-24, 2003.
 Sanmartin and Lorenzini, Exploration of Outer Planets Using Tethers for Power and Propulsion, AIAA Journal of Propulsion and Power, Vol. 21, No. 3, May-June 2005.