Geostationary Orbit

Geostationary Orbit


UN documents
Other documents
Books
Articles
Other useful readings
Useful links
 

 
UN documents

UNCOPUOS Legal Subcommittee Report, Part V: “Matters relating to the definition and delimitation of outer space and the character and utilization of the geostationary orbit, including consideration of ways and means to ensure the rational and equitable use of the geostationary orbit without prejudice to the role of the International Telecommunication Union” (p. 6)
UN A/AC.105/C.2/L.268/Add.1

Report of the 39th Session of the UNCOPUOS Legal Subcommittee, Vienna, 27 March-6 April 2000, Annex III: “Some aspects concerning the use of the geostationary orbit: paper adopted by the Legal Subcommittee” (p. 20)
UN A/AC.105/738

General Opinions Contained in the Non Working Paper of the COPUOS (1989)

Draft General Principles Governing the Geostationary Orbit (Working Paper presented by Colombia, Ecuador, Indonesia and Kenya – selected provisions) (1984)
UN A/C.105/C.2/L.147
 
 

 
Other documents

Proposals Relating to ITU Resolution 80 (Rev. WRC-2000) made by the Administration of Colombia to the ITU Radio Regulation Board (RRB) (2001)
UK ITU-R (02) 12

ITU Resolution 80 (WRC-97 and Rev. WRC-2000)

ITU International Radio Regulations (1995, as amended)

Bogotá Declaration (3 December 1976)
 
 

 
Books

Commission Spatiale de la Société Française de Droit Aérien et Spatial
“Orbites et fréquences: Statut, répartition et régime juridique: Journée d’études de la Commission spatiale de la Société française de droit aérien et spatial, 28 Septembre 2005”
Pedone, Paris, 2006.

G. C. M. REIJNEN, W. de GRAAFF
“The Pollution of Outer Space, in Particular of the Geostationary Orbit: Scientific, Policy, and Legal Aspects”
Nijhoff, 1989.
 
 

 
Articles

P. ABDURRASIYID
“The Geostationary Orbit After 12 Years”
In E. J. PALYGA, “International Space Law Miscellanea: Liber Amicorum Honouring Prof. dr. Andrzej Górbiel”, 1995.

P. ABDURRASIYID
“The Outer Space Treaty and Geostationary Orbit”
Annals of Air and Space Law, Vol. XII, 1987, p. 131.

M. BENKÖ, W. de GRAAFF
“Questions Relating to the Definition/Delimitation of Outer Space and the Character and Utilization of the Geostationary Orbit”
In M. BENKÖ, W. de GRAAFF, G. C. M. REIJNEN, “Space Law in the United Nations”, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Dordrecht, 1985 (also published in “Proceedings of the ECSL Summer Course on Space Law and Policy: Basic Materials”, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1993).

M. BOURÉLY
“Quelques réflexions au sujet de l’orbite géostationnaire”
Annals of Air and Space Law, Vol. XIII, 1988, p. 229.

R. E. BUTLER
“The Role of the ITU in the Use of the Geostationary Orbit”
Acta Astronautica, Vol. 17, Issue 6, 1988, pp. 607-610.

S. CAHILL
“Give Me My Space: Implications for Permitting National Appropriation of the Geostationary Orbit”
Wisconsin International Law Journal, Vol. 19, N. 2, 2001, pp. 231-248.

E. D. du CHARME, R. R. BOWEN, M. J. R. IRWIN,
“The Genesis of the 1985/87 ITU World Administrative Radio Conference on the Use of Geostationary Satellite Orbit and the Planning of Space Services Utilizing It”
Annals of air and Space Law, Vol. VII, 1982, p. 261.

C. Q. CHRISTOL
“Legal Status of the Geostationary Orbit in the Light of the 1985-1988 Activities of the ITU”
In “Proceedings of the Thirty-Second Colloquium on the Law of Outer Space, 1989”, Vol. 32, pp. 215-222.

A. A. COCCA
“Viewpoints of the Equatorial Countries toward Geostationary Orbit: Results of 12 Years of Controversy”
Acta Astronautica, Vol. 17, Issue 6, 1988, pp. 621-630.

S. COUTEIX
“De l’accès “équitable” à l’orbite des satellites géostationnaires”
Annuaire français de droit international, 1985, pp. 790-802.

S. E. DOYLE
“Space Law and the Geostationary Orbit: The ITU’s WARC-ORB 85-88 Concluded”
Journal of Space Law, Vol. 17, 1989, p. 13.

O. FERNADEZ-BRITAL
“Legal Status of the Geostationary Orbit and ITU Recent Activities”
In “Proceedings of the Thirty-Second Colloquium on the Law of Outer Space, 1989”, Vol. 32, pp. 223-227.

M. J. FINCH
“Limited Space: Allocating the Geostationary Orbit”
North Western Journal of International Law and Business, Vol. 7, 1985, pp. 188-802.

T. GANGALE
“Who Owns the Geostationary Orbit?”
Annals of Air and Space Law, Vol. XXXI, 2006.

A. E. GIRALDO OSPINA
“Los derechos reclamados por los países ecuatoriales en la Órbita Geoestacionaria y la soberanía a aplicar”
Revista Nacional de Derecho Aeronáutico y Espacial, N. 4, 2009.

C. B. HALSTEAD
“Prometheus Unbound? – Proposal for a New Paradigm for Air Law and Space Law: Orbit Law”
Journal of Space Law, Vol. 36, N. 1, 2010, pp. 143-205.

W. HAMPE, R. MUELLER
“Role of Political-Legal Norms Concerning the Use of the Geostationary Orbit: After the Conclusion of WARC-ORB 1988”
In “Proceedings of the Thirty-Second Colloquium on the Law of Outer Space, 1989”, Vol. 32, pp. 228-232.

W. HAMPE
“Proposal by the German Democratic Republic on Use of the Geostationary Orbit”
Acta Astronautica, Vol. 17, Issue 6, 1988, pp. 631-635.

D. HOPE
“Commercial Systems Due Diligence in the Application of Standards and Procedures Designed to Avoid the Creation of Orbital Debris in GEO”
In J. N. PELTON, R. M. JAKHU, “Space Safety Regulations and Standards”
Elsevier, 2010, Chapter 10, pp. 123-132.

R. S. JAKHU
“Space Debris in the Geostationary Orbit: A Matter of Concern for the ITU”
In “Proceedings of the Thirty-Fourth Colloquium on the Law of Outer Space, 1991”.

R. JAKHU, K. SINGH
“Space Security and Competition for Radio Frequencies and Geostationary Slots”
ZLW, Year 2009, Issue1.

N. JASENTULIYANA, R. CHIPMAN
“The Current Legal Regime of the Geostationary Orbit and Prospects for the Future”
Acta Astronautica, Vol. 17, Issue 6, 1988, pp. 599-606.

U. LEANZA
“Organisations internationales et orbite géostationnaire”
In R. A. HARRIS (eds.), “Proceedings of the Third ECSL Colloquium: International Organisations and Space Law: Their Role and Contributions, Perugia, Italy, 6-7 May 1999”, ESA/ECSL Publications, 1999, p. 291.

T. LOZANOVA
“Legal Status of the Geostationary Orbit in the Light of the Recent Activities of ITU”
In “Proceedings of the Thirty-Second Colloquium on the Law of Outer Space, 1989”, Vol. 32, pp. 233-241.

S. MOSTESHAR
“Development of the Regime for the Low Earth Orbit and the Geostationary Orbit”
In G. LAFFERRANDERIE, D. CROWTHER, “Outlook on Space Law Over the Next 30 Years: Essays Published for the 30th Anniversary of the Outer Space Treaty”, Kluwer Law International, 1997.

M. NARAINE
“WARC-ORB-85: Guaranteeing Access to the Geostationary Orbit?”
Telecommunications Policy, Vol. 9, Issue 2, 1985, pp. 97-108.

L. PEREK
“What Future for the Discussions of the Geostationary Orbit”
In “Proceedings of the Forty-Second Colloquium on the Law of Outer Space, 1999”, Vol. 42, pp. 132-136.

G. C. M. REIJNEN
“Space Law and the Developing Countries: The Case of the Geostationary Orbit”
In “Proceedings of the Thirty-First Colloquium on the Law of Outer Space, 1988”, Vol. 31, pp. 151-156.

N. RODRIGUES
“The Legal Subcommittee Considers Three New Agenda Items and Reaches an Agreement on the Issue of the Geostationary Orbit at Its Thirty-Ninth Session”
Journal of space Law, Vol. 28, N. 1, 2000, pp. 37-48.

K.-U. SCHROGL
“Questions Relating to the Character and Utilization of the Geostationary Orbit”
In M. BENKÖ, K.-U. SCHROGL (eds.), “International Space Law in the Making”, Frontieres, 1993.

M. L. SMITH
“Space Law/Space WARC: An Analysis of the Space Law Issues Raised at the 1985 ITU World Administrative Radio Conference on the Geostationary Orbit”
Houston Journal of International Law, Vol. 8, 1985-1986, p. 227.

O. VARMER
“The Third World’s Search for Equitable Access to the Geostationary Satellite Orbit”
ILSA Journal of International Law, Vol. 11, 1987, pp. 175-197.

S. WIESSNER
“Access to a Res Publica Internationalis: The Case of the Geostationary Orbit”
In “Proceedings of the Twenty-Ninth Colloquium on the Law of Outer Space, 1986”, Vol. 29, pp. 147-153.
 
 

 
Other useful readings

M. K. MACAULEY
“Allocation of Orbit and Spectrum Resources for Regional Communications: What's at Stake?”
Resources for the Future (RFF) Publications, 1997 (RFF 98-10).

M. S. SOROOS
“The Commons in the Sky: The Radio Spectrum and the Geosynchronous Orbit as Issues in Global Policy”
International Organization, Vol. 36, 1982, pp. 665-677.

G. THOMAS, G. HOUPIS, R. KUOISZ, D. CANTOR
“Allocation of Geostationary Orbit and Frequency Resources for Europe: An Economic Assessment”
Telecommunications Policy, Vol. 18, Issue 9, 1994, pp. 715-724.
 
 

 
Useful links

ESA Education website on the geostationary orbit

List of satellites in geostationary orbit
 
 
 
Last update: 27 June 2011