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Science & Exploration

Getting to space

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ESA / Science & Exploration / Human and Robotic Exploration / Futura

Easing from the grasp of Earth’s gravity is no easy feat. Humans dreamed of going to the stars for centuries, but it took until 1961 for Yuri Gagarin to become the first human to orbit our planet.

Futura liftoff
Futura liftoff

When ignited, the Soyuz launcher delivers mind-boggling power to escape the clutches of Earth’s gravity and provide a cruising speed of 28 800 km/h.

Within 10 minutes of rising from the pad ESA astronaut Samantha Cristoforetti, Roscosmos commander Anton Shkaplerov and NASA astronaut Terry Virts travelled over 1640 km and gained 210 km altitude. Every second for nine minutes, their spacecraft accelerated 50 km/h on average.

Their spacecraft shared its name with the Soyuz launcher, which means ‘union’ in Russian. The ‘TMA’ in the designation stands for Transport Modified Anthropometric, meaning that the interior was redesigned to fit larger astronauts. Regardless of the upgrade, there is little breathing room. Astronauts wear Sokol suits that offer protection in an emergency. They are designed for the Soyuz sitting position, which is why astronauts look so hunched over as they walk to their rocket.

The last ‘M’ in Soyuz TMA-15M stands for Modernised because the vehicle was upgraded with digital control systems. It is the 15th Soyuz in this series to be launched into space.

Using a different numbering system, the flight is also designated as Soyuz 41S – the 41st crewed Soyuz launch to the International Space Station.

Fast road to Space Station

Soyuz TMA-15M approaches Station
Soyuz TMA-15M approaches Station

Expedition 42 took the fast route to the Station, docking in less than six hours. The same-day rendezvous and docking gave them two extra full days on the Station to perform experiments. They not only spent less time cramped in Soyuz but, most importantly, it saved fuel and life support for their six-month Expedition.

An alternative, more traditional approach, takes two days to reach the Station while orbiting Earth 34 times. This route was superseded in March 2013 when Expedition 35 was the first to get to the Space Station in record time.

The longer route is always available as backup if ground control or the astronauts consider it safer.

Soyuz carries a module ahead of the crew section to serve as living quarters enroute to the Station. Naturally, a toilet is included.

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